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Sunday, July 14, 2013

THE ECOUMENIZATION THEORY or PERI TEES TOU OIKOU PHYSEOOS - from political economy to demoikonomy(4)


[64] ΟΥΤΕ ΟΙ ΕΜΟΙ ΘΕΣΜΟΙ ΑΘΗΝΑΙΟΥΣ 
          ΕΠΙ ΠΟΛΥ ΟΝΗΣΕΙΝ ΕΜΕΛΛΟΝ
          ΜΕΤΑ ΟΥΤΕ ΣΥ ΚΑΘΗΡΑΣ ΤΗΝ ΠΟΛΙΝ ΩΝΗΣΑΣ.
          ΤΟ ΤΕ ΓΑΡ ΘΕΙΟΝ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΝΟΜΟΘΕΤΑΙ
          ΟΥ ΚΑΘ' ΕΑΥΤΑ ΔΥΝΑΝΤΑΙ ΟΝΗΣΑΙ ΤΑΣ ΠΟΛΕΙΣ,
          ΟΙ ΔΕ ΑΕΙ ΤΟ ΠΛΗΘΟΣ ΑΓΟΝΤΕΣ 
          ΟΠΩΣ ΑΝ ΓΝΩΜΗΣ ΕΧΩΣΙΝ.
          ΟΥΤΩ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΤΟ ΘΕΙΟΝ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΝΟΜΟΙ,
          ΕΥ ΜΕΝ ΑΓΟΝΤΩΝ,ΕΙΣΙΝ ΩΦΕΛΙΜΟΙ,
          ΚΑΚΩΣ ΔΕ ΑΓΟΝΤΩΝ ΟΥΔΕΝ ΩΦΕΛΟΥΣΙΝ.
                                                
                                            DIOGENE LAERTE
                          "VIES ET DOCTRINES DES PHILOSOPHES
                                               DE L'ANTIQUITE"
                                               LIVRE I - CHII -SOLON     


THE POLITICO-PHILOSOPHICAL  CONCEPT  OF THIS ESSAY ,WHICH IS CLOSING THE MAIN POLITICAL PERCEPTION FOR THE CURRENT  CHAPTER IS THE Demos AND ITS ECONOMIES.
THE CITIZENS ,WHO BY THE TECHNOLOGY'S USE WILL BECOME  METAPOLITANS,MEANING THAT THOSE  CITIZENS WHO ARE GOING TO WORK ACTIVELY INSIDE THE SOCIETY,AT THE FIELDS OF ARTS AND POPULAR  SCIENCES-KNOWLEDGE,ECO DEMOCRACY,LIFE LEARNING EXPERIENCE,BEING   EMPOWERED BY THE ANCIENT VIRTUES OF LOVE ,EGKRATEIA AND  ETHOS,WILL BE THE GUIDERS FOR THE SOCIETAL  DEVELOPMENT TOGETHER WITH  DEMIOURGOE,THE PHILOSOPHERS,THE SCIENTISTS  AND CITIZENS ASSEMBLIES.
THIS IDEA WILL BE THE BASE AND THE CREATION FOR ANY ECONOMIC INTERESTS,SOCIETAL RELATIONS AND  ENVIRONMENTAL ,FISCAL PLUS GOVERNMENTAL  RESULTS.
THE POLITICAL ECONOMY(1)  SCIENCE ,WHICH  APPEARED  FOR THE FIRST TIME AT FRANCE BY THE BOOK "TRAITE DE L'ECONOMIE POLITIQUE" BY ANTOINE MONTCHRETIEN,ΑΤ 1615,HAS ACCOMPLISHED ITS MISSION,EVEN IF IT IS CALLED AS ECONOMICS,BY A LATER TERMINOLOGY TRANSFORMATION.
THIS "ECONOMIE POLITIQUE" POINT OF VIEW ENDED ITS CIRCLE ,BECAUSE IT IS GUIDING THROUGH DIFFERENT  THEORIES THE HUMAN COMMUNITIES TO AN AUGMENTED INDIVIDUALISM (ΙΔΙΩΤΕΙΑ) AND CLASSES EGOISM,WHICH BY ITS TURN IS PROVOKING GREEDINESS OUT OF THE GOLDEN METER,OLIGARCHIC DECISIONS AND  TYRANNIC BEHAVIOURS.
IN OTHER WORDS CORRUPTION,SEPARATION,AGGRESSIVE IDEAS WHICH DON'T ASSIST FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A HARMONIOUS DEMOS,WHICH IS WORKING FOR THE SOCIAL BENEFIT AND BALANCE.
THE BRUTAL POLITICAL ENVIRONMENTS ,WHICH ARE BEING CREATED BY FOLLOWING THE ABOVE MENTIONED POLICIES , EITHER IN NATURAL OR IN  CONTINUAL QUICK INTERACTIONS (WHICH ARE CREATING AN ANCIENT DISEASE FIRST MENTIONED BY HIPPOCRATES ,ΤΟ ΑΓΧΟΣ) OR IN OTHER WORDS PRESSURE CONDITIONS, STRESS,BETWEEN VARIOUS LIFE FORMS  HAVE AS  CONSEQUENCES  THE MINIMIZING OF BIODIVERSITY ,THE ELIMINATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND  THE DOWNFALL OF THE PHYSICAL  FREQUENCIES WHICH ARE CONSERVING THE ENBIOUS SPECIES ON THE PLANET,BUT NOT ONLY.
THIS IS AGAINST THE NOMOS OF OUR COMMON OIKOS,AGAINST THE ECO-NOMY.
THE PROOF IS  THE CLIMATE CHANGE,THE SUDDEN DEATHS WITHOUT REASONS FOR MILLIONS OF  ANIMALS,DURING THE LAST 40-50 YEARS,THE GROSS AUGMENTATION OF ARTIFICIAL UNNATURAL  RUBBISH ETC ,BUT ALSO THROUGH THOUSANDS OF SCIENTIFIC PAPERS WHICH EXAMINE ALL ASPECTS OF THIS CATASTROPHIC DECLINE FOR THE HUMAN CIVILIZATION AND  EACH ONE'S PERSONAL HYGEIA.
THE DEMOIKONOMY IS GOING TO BE BASED ,AS THIS IS NATURAL ,TO THE POLITICAL ECONOMY THEORIES ,BY ADDING NEW ASPECTS AND SCIENCES THROUGH THE MULTIFUNCTIONAL STAGES  OF A  WORKING DEMOCRACY ,IN REAL ,VIRTUAL/ELECTRONIC AND ICONIC PARTICIPATORY LEVELS.
THE METAPOLITANS AND CITIZENS PARTICIPATION TO A FIVE DIMENSIONAL HORIZONTAL SCHEMES  (2) PLUS THE THREE DIMENSIONAL VERTICAL ONES IN CYCLES MOVEMENTS ,OUGHT TO  BIRTH AND NOURISH  THE APPROPRIATE  DYNAMISM (DYNAMIC ABILITY)  FOR AN ECONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ,AS IT WILL BE EXPLAINED  TO THE THIRD  CHAPTER AND LAST PART OF THE PRESENT PONEMA.
IN THIS WAY THE POLITICAL DECISIONS ,BASED ON THE NEW SYSTEM ,MIGHT  WORK,OFFER AND GUIDE THE VARIOUS ZONES COMMUNITIES AND  KOINA TO PROSPERITY,HARMONY,SUSTAINABILITY  AND RESPECT TO G(R)AIA'S ECO MOVEMENTS AND WAVES.

      AND HENCE IT IS THAT HE WHO ATTEMPTS  
        TO GET ANOTHER MAN INTO HIS ABSOLUTE POWER
        DOES THEREBY PUT HIMSELF INTO A STATE OF WAR WITH HIM;

        IT BEING TO BE UNDERSTOOD AS A DECLARATION
        OF A DESIGN UPON HIS LIFE.
        FOR I HAVE   A REASON TO CONCLUDE  
        THAT HE  WHO WOULD GET ME  INTO HIS POWER
        WITHOUT MY CONSENT WOULD USE ME 
        AS HE PLEASED WHEN HE HAD GOT ME THERE,
        AND DESTROY ME TOO WHEN HE HAD A FANCY TO IT;
        FOR NOBODY CAN DESIRE TO HAVE ME
        IN HIS ABSOLUTE POWER   UNLESS IT BE COMPEL  ME 
        BY FORCE TO THAT WHICH IS AGAINST 
        THE RIGHT OF MY FREEDOM ie.MAKE ME A SLAVE.
       
       TO BE FREE FROM SUCH FORCE IS THE ONLY SECURITY 
       OF MY PRESERVATION AND REASON  BIDS ME
       LOOK ON HIM AS AN ENEMY TO MY PRESERVATION 
       WHO WOULD TAKE AWAY THAT 
       FREEDOM  WHICH IS THE FENCE TO IT;
       SO THAT HE WHO MAKES AN ATTEMPT TO ENSLAVE ME 
       THEREBY PUTS HIMSELF INTO A STATE OF  WAR WITH ME.
       HE THAT IN THE STATE OF NATURE WOULD TAKE AWAY
       THE FREEDOM THAT BELONGS TO ANYONE
       IN THAT STATE MUST  NECESSARILY BE SUPPOSED
       TO HAVE A DESIGN TO TAKE AWAY EVERYTHING  ELSE,  
       THAT FREEDOM BEING THE FOUNDATION OF ALL THE REST;
       AS HE THAT IN THE STATE OF SOCIETY 
       WOULD TAKE AWAY THE FREEDOM BELONGING  
       TO THOSE OF THAT SOCIETY  OR COMMONWEALTH 
       MUST BE SUPPOSED TO DESIGN TO TAKE AWAY 
       FROM THEM EVERYTHING ELSE,AND SO BE LOOKED 
       ON AS IN A STATE OF WAR.
   
                             JOHN LOCK
     "TWO TREATISES ON GOVERNMENT " 1680-90
                            CH2 &19       

 THE  IDEAS OF J.LOCK ABOUT GOVERNANCE,NATURE AND PROPERTY,IN A MORE OR LESS WAY HAVE BEEN ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE IDEAS AND POLICIES
WHICH WERE FOLLOWED FOR THE LATEST  3-4 CENTURIES.
HOWEVER EVEN IF HIS PERCEPTION FOR LIBERTY,EQUALITY,PROPERTY IS ALWAYS AT THE FRONT LINES OF CITIZENS PRINCIPLES,WHAT  SHOULD  BE DONE IS TO PROCEED FURTHER ON ,OVERCOMING THE INDIVIDUAL'S (=IDIOOTES,IDIOTS TERMS USED BY ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY FOR THOSE WHO WEREN'T PARTICIPATING TO THE DEMOS AFFAIRS),NATURAL LAWS.
THE PRIVATE PROPERTY  WILL BE COMBINED,BY KEEPING ITS AUTONOMY, WITH THE DEMOS, VARIOUS COMMUNITIES  PROPERTIES AND JURISDICTION,BY BEING ORGANIZED THE STATE OF NATURE INSIDE THIS KOINON UNDER  THE METER "ENOUGH  AND AS GOOD",IN ACCORDANCE TO THE NEEDS AND   HARMONIOUS  EXCEPTIONS.
THE  POLITICAL SCIENCE OF THE NEW ERA  WILL BE BASED ON EDUCATION,LIFE PRACTICES,PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES , IN ORDER TO BE ACHIEVED,A HIGH LEVEL OF MORALS/ETHICS  AND VIRTUES/ARETES.
THEN THE METAPOLITANS,CITIZENS CONSCIOUS  WOULD BE TRANSMITTED INSIDE THE FIVE HORIZONTAL AND THE THREE VERTICAL GROUPS,BY THEIR PARTICIPATION AND WORK THROUGH  THE DEMOS ASSEMBLIES.
EΓKRATEIA  VIRTUE IT MAY BE THE IDEAL FOR THE KOINON,SO THAT ECONOLOGY TO FOLLOW NATURAL METERS,DEPENDING ON GEO-ECONOMIC STRATEGIC PARAMETERS AND TO BE IN THE POSITION TO OFFER TO ALL ACCORDING TO THEIR NEEDS,CAPABILITIES AND TO THE  COMMUNITIES  THE  METER OF COEXISTING PEACEFULLY  TOGETHER WITH OTHER REGIONAL,NATIONAL,ZONE AND INTERNATIONAL GROUPS OF PEOPLE.
THE UNI-VERSITIES BY INTRODUCING IN  THEIR LESSONS,PRACTICES AND EDUCATIONAL METHODS FOR DEEPER GNOOSIS,THEY SHOULD BECOME  DISTRIBUTORS,ALLOCATORS,DONORS FOR ALL (=PAN) ,  OVER(EPI) THE KNOW HOW(=HISTEEMI)  CONCERNING SCIENCES AND ARTS,TURNING INTO ΠΑΝ-ΕΠΙ-ΙΣΤΗΜΙΑ THEIR INSTITUTIONAL STATUS.
AROUND THESE CENTRES OF SCIENCE AND UNDER THEIR GUIDANCE,BIBLIOTHEQUES,INSTITUTES,LABORATORIUMS,ATELIERS,ART CENTERS, NON PROFITABLE AND PROFITABLE ORGANIZATIONS,WILL  FLOURISH  AND ORGANIZE THE LOCAL EDUCATIONAL METHODS FOR PREPARING THE CITIZENS/POLITES FOR  THE  SOCIETY AND  NEW EPOCH.
AT THE SAME TIME SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH,AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH THE LATEST ACHIEVEMENTS AND DISCOVERIES MAY ASSIST THE WORK OF DEMIORGOE AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF ENTERPRISES,FOR CONTRIBUTING TOWARDS TO  THE BENEFIT FOR ALL.
A GOOD PARADIGM CAN BE GIVEN BY  THE SPACE RESEARCH ON  EXPLORATION MATTERS ,WHICH TODAY OFFERS NEW FACILITIES,TO  EARTHEN DAILY LIFE.
THE SECTION OF THE  INDUSTRY,WILL BE TRANSFORMED THROUGH THE AUTOMATA(=ROBOTS)  TO A META-INDUSTRIAL SECTOR,WHICH IT IS PROPOSED TO BE NAMED AS BIOMECHANICAL ONE.
THIS NEW APPROACH ,BY TECHNOLOGY'S ASSISTANCE, THROUGH THE SYNERGIES WITH THE POLIS AND ITS STRUCTURES WILL AUGMENT THE NEW  DEM-O-IKO-NOMIC POTENTIALS .
THE LEADERS ,THE METAPOLITANS AND THE PHILOSOPHERS-ELDERS ,WHO WITH THEIR THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL WISDOM  WILL ADVISE THE KOINON,TOGETHER WITH VARIOUS ARTISTIC,TECHNOLOGICAL,RELIGIOUS-SPIRITUAL  AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS ,BUT MAINLY THROUGH DEMOS POWERS,TOOLS AND SORTING PROCEDURES.
AS A RESULT MIGHT BE THAT  THE LAWS,THE ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES AND THE ECONOLOCICAL POLICIES TO OPERATE  PROPERLY UNDER  THE ORDER OF JUSTICE,  PEACE AND HARMONY.
THE TOMORROW SCIENCE OF POLITICS  OUGHT TO BE THE POLITICS OF PHILOSOPHICAL-SPIRITUAL MINDS (3)  STRONGLY  CONNECTED  WITH CITIZENS VARIOUS  ASSEMBLIES.

THE NEW SCIENCES OF DEMOIKONOMIES AND ECONOLOGY ,WOULD BE STUDIED AND ANALYZED INTO THREE SPHERES OF KNOWLEDGE , IN ECONOMICS ,ECODYNAMICS AND ECOLOGY.
THE DEMOIKONOMICS SHOULD ANALYZE  THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF ELECTIONS AND SORTING PROCEDURES AT A MACRO AND MICRO ECONOLOGIC ENVIRONMENTS,COMBINING THE STUDIES  FOR VARIOUS GOVERNANCE DEMOCRATIC TYPES,WITH THE  ASSISTANCE OF E-GOVERNANCE AND I-GOVERNANCE AND  IN ANALOGY WITH THE PREVIOUS DESCRIPTIONS.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE HUMANITIES SCIENTIFIC APPROACH,THROUGH THE CLASSICAL SCHOOLS ,SOCIOLOGY,PSYCHOLOGY,COMMUNICATIONS AND OTHER ART AND CULTURAL STUDIES IS VERY CRUCIAL TO THIS ANALYTIC-SYNTHETICAL DIALECTIC THINKING.
THE OLDER AND NEW POLITICAL ECONOMY THEORIES OF NOWADAYS,CANNOT EXAMINE WELL ,IN WHAT WAYS THE POLITICAL FORCES AFFECT THE CHOICE OF POLICIES ,BECAUSE THEY ARE LIMITED ,BY BEING BASED IN OLIGARCHIC REPRESENTATIVE IDEAS AND STRICT MATHEMATICAL ECONOMIC MODELS WHICH HAVE DEMOCRATIC ELEMENTS,BUT NOT THE INNOVATIVE,PLURALITY  AND JOY OF A DEMOS-KRATOS WAYS.

THE WAYS OF ANOO-THROOPOI/ΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΙ

ἕλɛγέ τɛ τοὺς μεν  ἄλλους ἀνθρὼπους ζῇν ἵν' ἐσθίοίɛν; 
αὐτὸς δε ἐσθὶɛίν ἵνα ζῴη

SOCRATES
THE LIVES AND OPINIONS OF EMINENT PHILOSOPHERS
XVI.

BY DIOGENES LAERTIUS




THE REFORMS WHICH ARE GOING TO BE FOLLOWED BY THIS SCIENTIFIC-ECONOLOGICAL DEMOCRATIC EVOLUTION,SHOULD CREATE COLOURFUL ZONES,NATIONS,REGIONS AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES,IN EVERY ASPECT OF LIFE,BY CONSERVING AT THE SAME TIME THE MONOCHROME OF THE OLD STATE- COMMUNISTICOCAPITALISTIC SYSTEM  IN LANDS WHERE THEIR VIVIFYING ASSEMBLIES WILL DECIDE SO,BECAUSE COEXISTENCE IS A BASIC DEMOCRATIC ELEMENT,GIVEN BY THE GLORY OF PHYSIS TO ITS INHABITANTS ON THE  DIA-KOSMOS MADE BY ΘEUS.

THE COLOURS,THE WAVES,THE ELIXIS OF LIFE,
THE ICON OF THE photons FANTASY,
MAKE THE JOY OF THE NOMOS,

INSIDE EACH ONES ECOS,
SO DEMOS TO LIVE AGAIN .

outos efa 





NOTES

(1) THE WORD economy DERIVES FROM THE ALEKSANDRIAN -IONIAN/ATTIC  HELLENIC DIALECT,oikos WHICH MEANS HOUSE AND  nomos WHICH IS MEANING LAW.
THE OTHER WORD POLITICAL  DERIVES FROM POLITICS,POLICY,ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΗ, POLITIE (ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑΙ) ,EVENTUALLY FROM polis,POLE.
(2)SOCIETAL,LOCAL,REGIONAL,NATIONAL,ZONAL GROUPS
(3) http://spacezilotes.wordpress.com/2011/09/10/a-new-ancient-solution-the-hellenic/
(4)THIS THIRD ESSAY IS CONTINUING THE WORK FROM THE POLITICAL PRESENTATION OF THE THEORY,BY BEING THE LAST ONE.THE PREVIOUS TWO ARE AS FOLLOWING
POLITICAL  TREATISE ON THE SYNPOLIS AND THE META-CITIZENS GOVERNANCE  and  
THE METATECHNICAL physiconomic policies.THESE THREE ESSAYS ARE CONCLUDING  THE SECOND CHAPTER UNDER THE  TITLE "the political logos".



REFERENCES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_philosophy

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_economy

http://spacezilotes.wordpress.com/category/ideologic-matters/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_science

ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΕΣ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΑ



















H ΑΝΩΤΕΡΩ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΑΦΙΕΡΟΥΤΑΙ ΕΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΗΜΕΤΕΡΟΥΣ ΓΟΝΕΑΣ.


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Monday, July 01, 2013

HYDROGEN ENERGY PRODUCTION - HISTORY AND FUTURE

DEAR FELLOWS CHAIRESTHAI (=BE HAPPY),
CONTINUING THE SCIENTIFIC  RESEARCH AND POLITICAL WORK FOR  EUROPEAN CITIZENS AND PARTNERS,EPAPHOS CONSULTANCY  PARTICIPATED TO THE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY WEEK ,BEING ORGANIZED BY THE EU COMMISSION FROM  24-28 /06/13.
THE LAST  PUBLIC EVENT WAS THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE EUROPEAN HYDROGEN ASSOCIATION AT THE PAID BY THE CITIZENS HOUSE OF THE EUROPEAN CITIES ,MUNICIPALITIES AND REGIONS.

https://twitter.com/epaphosinfo/status/350549012245528576

DURING THE EVENT IT WAS TRIED TO BE UNDERSTOOD WHY THIS IMPORTANT SECTOR IS STUCK,AT LEAST IN EUROPEAN LANDS.
THE SHARE  OF HYDROGEN ENERGY CONTRIBUTION  TO THE WHOLE RENEWABLE ENERGY  IS LESS THAN 1%,ACCORDING TO HON.CITIZEN AND PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD MR.WILLIAMSON  IAN.
WE THANK THE HOSPITALITY OF THIS EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION ,WITH SPECIAL THANKS FOR THE EU COMMISSION'S VERY INTERESTING ANSWERS TO OUR QUESTIONS,ESPECIALLY TO THE INDIRECTLY CONNECTED WAVE ENERGY SECTOR,TO WHICH SOME YEARS AGO WE HAD PROPOSED STRATEGICAL DIRECTIONS,WITHOUT BEING INFORMED FOR THE RESULTS.
TAKING ADVANTAGE OF THIS DISCUSSION IT IS PRESENTED IN A SUMMARIZED WAY HISTORY AND SOME  ABILITIES FOR THE SECTOR,PROMISING THAT  IN THE FUTURE IT WILL BE  POSTED MORE ADVANTAGES ,BUT ALSO TAKING CARE FOR THE MINUS.
THANKS ALL FOR YOUR ATTENTION AND SUPPORT
A.CH.




HISTORY

  Hydrogen has received increased attention as an environmentally friendly option to help meet today’s energy needs. The road leading to an
understanding of hydrogen’s energy potential presents a fascinating tour through scientific discovery and industrial ingenuity.

1766 - Hydrogen was first identified as a distinct element by British scientist Henry Cavendish after he separated hydrogen gas by reacting  zinc metal with hydrochloric acid. In a demonstration to the Royal  Society of London, Cavendish applied a spark to hydrogen gas yielding
water. This discovery led to his later finding that water (H2O) is made
of hydrogen and oxygen.
1783 – Jacques Alexander Cesar Charles,a French physicist, launched the first  hydrogen balloon flight. Known as "Charliere," the unmanned balloon flew  to an altitude of three kilometers. Only
three months later, Charles himself flew  the first manned hydrogen balloon.
1788 – Building on the discoveries of  Cavendish, French chemist Antoine Lavoisier gave ydrogen its name,which was derived from the Greek words - “hydro” and “genes,”meaning “water” and “born of.”
1800 –English scientists William Nicholson and Sir Anthony Carlisle  discovered that applying electric current to water produced hydrogen  and oxygen gases. This process was later termed “electrolysis.”
1839 – The fuel cell effect, combining hydrogen and oxygen gases to  produce water and an electric current, was discovered by Swiss chemist  Christian Friedrich Schoenbein.
1845 – English scientist and judge Sir William Grove demonstrated  Schoenbein’s discovery on a practical scale by creating a “gas battery.”
For his achievement he earned the title “Father of the Fuel Cell.”
1920s – German engineer Rudolf Erren converted the internal  combustion engines of trucks, buses and submarines to use  hydrogen or hydrogen mixtures. British scientist and Marxist writer
J.B.S. Haldane introduced the concept of renewable hydrogen in  his paper, Science and the Future, by proposing that ”there will be  great power stations where during windy weather the surplus  power will be used for the electrolytic decomposition of water  into oxygen and hydrogen.”
1937 – After ten successful trans-Atlantic flights from Germany to the  United States, the Hindenburg, a dirigible inflated with hydrogen gas,erupted into flames while landing in Lakewood, New Jersey. See 1997.

1958 – The United States formed the National Aeronautics and Space  Administration (NASA). NASA’s space program currently uses the most liquid hydrogen worldwide, primarily for rocket propulsion and as a  fuel for fuel cells.
1959 – Francis T. Bacon of Cambridge University in England built the  first practical hydrogen-air fuel cell. The 5-kilowatt (kW) system  powered a welding machine. He named his fuel cell design the “Bacon  Cell.” Later that year, Harry Karl Ihrig, an engineer for the Allis - Chalmers
Manufacturing Company, demonstrated the first fuel cell vehicle: a 20–horsepower tractor. Hydrogen fuel cells, based upon Bacon’s design, have been used to generate on-board electricity, heat and water for  astronauts aboard the famous Apollo spacecraft and all subsequent  space shuttle missions.
1970 – Electrochemist John O’M. Bockris coined the term “hydrogen  economy.” He later published Energy: The Solar-Hydrogen Alternative,describing his envisioned hydrogen economy where cities in the United  States could be supplied with solar energy.
1972 – A 1972 Gremlin, modified by The University of California at Los  Angeles, entered the 1972 Urban Vehicle Design Competition and  won first prize for the lowest tailpipe emissions. Students converted  the Gremlin’s internal combustion engine to run on hydrogen supplied
from an onboard tank.
1973 –The OPEC oil embargo and the resulting supply shock suggested  that the era of cheap petroleum had ended and that the world needed  alternative fuels. The development of hydrogen fuel cells for  conventional commercial applications began.
1974 – Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu of the University of Miami, FL,organized The Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy Conference (THEME),the first international conference held to discuss hydrogen energy.
Following the conference, the scientists and engineers who attended  the THEME conference formed the International Association for  Hydrogen Energy (IAHE).

1977 – International Energy Agency (IEA) was established in response  to global oil market disruptions. IEA activities included the research  and development of hydrogen energy technologies. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) was also created.
1978 – National Science Foundation transferred the Federal Hydrogen  R&D Program to the U.S. DOE.
1988 – The Soviet Union Tupolev Design Bureau successfully converted  a 164-passenger TU-154 commercial jet to operate one of the jet’s  three engines on liquid hydrogen. The maiden flight lasted 21 minutes.
1989 – The National Hydrogen Association (NHA) formed in the United  States with ten members. Today, the NHA has nearly 100 members,including representatives from the automobile and aerospace  industries, federal, state and local governments, universities,
researchers, utilities and energy providers. The International  Organization for Standardization’s Technical Committee for Hydrogen  Technologies was also created.
1990 – The world’s first solar powered hydrogen production plant at  Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern, a research and testing facility in southern  Germany, became operational. The U.S. Congress passed the Spark M.Matsunaga Hydrogen, Research, Development and Demonstration Act  (PL 101-566), which prescribed the formulation of a 5-year  management and implementation plan for hydrogen research and  development in the United States. The Hydrogen Technical Advisory
Panel (HTAP) was mandated by the Matsunaga Act to ensure  consultation on and coordination of hydrogen research.
1991 – Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. begins  development of three 30-foot Fuel Cell Test Bed Buses (TBB) as part of  their Generation I Bus Program. In 2001, Georgetown finished their  second Generation II bus, which uses hydrogen from methanol to  power a 100kW fuel cell “engine.”
1992 – The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a  cooperative R&D program, was established by the Clinton  Administration as a joint effort between the government and
automobile manufactures for the research and development of new  vehicles technologies and alternative fuels, including hydrogen.
1994 – Daimler Benz demonstrated the NECAR I (New Electric CAR),its first hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, at a press conference in Ulm,Germany.
1995 – The Chicago Transit Authority unveiled the first of their  three hydrogen fuel cell buses. The small pilot fleet began operation  the following year.
1997 – Retired NASA engineer Addison Bain challenged the belief  that hydrogen caused the Hindenburg accident. The hydrogen, Bain demonstrated, did not cause the catastrophic fire but rather it was the  combination of static electricity and highly flammable material on the  skin of the airship. For more information, view the Hydrogen Safety  fact sheet.

1998 – Iceland unveiled a plan  to create the first hydrogen  economy by 2030.
1999 – Europe’s first hydrogen  fueling stations were opened  in the German cities of
Hamburg and Munich. The  Royal Dutch/Shell Company  committed to a hydrogen  future by forming a hydrogen  division. Also, a consortium of  Icelandic institutions, headed by the financial group New Business  Venture Fund, partnered with Royal Dutch/Shell Group,
DaimlerChrysler (a merger of Daimler Benz and Chrysler) Norsk  Hydro to form the Icelandic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Company,Ltd. to further the hydrogen economy in Iceland.
2001 – Ballard Power Systems launched the world’s first volumeproduced proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system  designed for integration into a wide variety of industrial and
consumer end-product applications.
2002 – Executives from DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Ford Motor   Company and General Motors Corporation, along with Secretary  of Energy Spencer Abraham, announced a new cooperative  automotive research (CAR) partnership between the U.S.
Department of Energy and the U.S. Council for Automotive  Research (USCAR). The program, FreedomCAR, focuses on  developing enabling technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells,
for petroleum-free cars and light trucks.
2003 – President George W. Bush announced in his 2003 State  of the Union Address a $1.2 billion hydrogen fuel initiative to  develop the technology for commercially viable hydrogenpowered fuel cells, such that “the first car driven by a child born  today could be powered by hydrogen and pollution free.” U.S.  Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham launched the International
Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy (IPHE) to foster global  cooperation in the development of hydrogen technology.
2004 – U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced over
$350-million devoted to hydrogen research and vehicle demonstration projects, nearly one-third of President Bush's  commitment. The funding encompasses over 30 lead  organizations and more than 100 partners selected through a  competitive review process.

“I believe that water will one day be  employed as fuel, that hydrogen and  oxygen which constitute it, used singly or  together, will furnish an inexhaustible  source of heat and light, of an intensity of
which coal is not capable.”

~ Jules Verne, The Mysterious Island (1874)

SOURCE  http://www.schydrogen.org




HERE IS EU COMMISSION'S VISION

A)     ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/fp7/energy/docs/hyways-roadmap_en.pdf

B)    Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells







JAPAN'S POLICIES CONCERNING A HYDROGEN SOCIETY


















Rapid Introduction of Fuel Cell   Vehicles toward Practical Use

Following the introduction of fuel cell buses on regular services on the expressway between central Tokyo and Haneda Airport from December 2010, four city gas utilities and nine companies in the automobile manufacturing and energy sectors issued a "Joint Statement on the Release of Fuel Cell Vehicles to the Domestic Market and the Development of Hydrogen Infrastructure" in January 2011.
Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) (1) are fueled by hydrogen, (2) are driven by a motor that runs on electricity produced by chemical reactions between hydrogen and oxygen, and (3) travel without emitting CO2. Of the 1,280 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions from Japan in fiscal 2008, the transport sector accounted for 16% (about 200 million tons). There are high expectations for FCVs and other types of next-generation vehicle to help create a low carbon society.
The Strategic Energy Plan of Japan (which defines national energy policies up to 2030), which was revised in June 2010, states the importance of promoting next-generation vehicles and includes FCVs as a next-generation vehicle to be promoted by the government because of their contribution to global warming prevention, energy security and the competitiveness of Japanese industry.
This newsletter contains two articles on FCV projects and describes a related hydrogen town demonstration project in Kitakyushu City. 


Start of FCV Transport Services between Central Tokyo and Haneda/Narita Airports

A Hydrogen Highway Project for connecting central Tokyo with Haneda and Narita Airports via FCV transport services, started on December 16, 2010. There is a single regular FCV limousine bus service each day in both directions between Haneda Airport and Shinjuku Station West Exit, and also between Haneda Airport and Tokyo City Air Terminal. In addition, hired FCV limousine services connect Narita Airport, Haneda Airport and central Tokyo.
This project is operated by the Research Association of Hydrogen Supply/Utilization Technology (HySUT)*, and is a part of the Demonstration Program for Establishing a Hydrogen-Based Social System, sponsored by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.
Mainly for the limousine bus between Haneda Airport and central Tokyo, Tokyo Gas has built the Haneda Hydrogen Station near Haneda Airport, next to a natural gas station for NGVs. At this hydrogen station, hydrogen is reformed from natural gas supplied by city gas pipeline. It is also planned to separate, recover and liquefy the CO2 produced in this process, and to supply it to industry.
At another hydrogen station which serves hired FCV limousines between Narita Airport and the city center, hydrogen is supplied by JX Nippon Oil and Energy Corporation and Idemitsu Kosan. High pressure hydrogen gas generated in refineries is filled in hydrogen cylinders and transported by trucks. 
* Member companies/organizations:
Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Toho Gas Co., Ltd., Saibu Gas Co., Ltd., JX Nippon Oil and Energy Corporation, Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., Iwatani Corporation, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Cosmo Oil Co., Ltd., Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K., Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation, Air Liquide Japan Ltd., Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd., Toyota Motor Corporation, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Honda R&D Co., Ltd., and Engineering Advancement Association of Japan


Joint Announcement of the Release of Fuel Cell Vehicles to the Domestic Market and the Development of Hydrogen Infrastructure

On January 13, 2011, 13 companies including four major city gas utilities, automobile manufacturers (such as Toyota Motor Corporation) and energy sector companies, jointly announced the release of FCVs, as a type of next-generation vehicle, to the domestic market in 2015 and the development of hydrogen supply infrastructure. The contents of the state are as follows: 
1.Automobile manufacturers are significantly reducing the cost of fuel cell systems through technological development. They aim to introduce mass-produced FCV models to the domestic market by 2015, mainly in the four largest cities of Japan (Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka and Fukuoka) and to start selling them to consumers. After initial introduction, further marketing effort will then be made for popularizing FCVs as way of coping with energy and environmental problems.
2.To kick-start the market for mass-produced FCV models, hydrogen suppliers (city gas utilities, oil companies, etc.) will prepare the initial hydrogen supply infrastructure at about 100 locations by 2015, which will then be expanded in line with forecasted sales of FCVs.
3.To greatly reduce CO2 emissions from the transport sector, automobile manufacturers and hydrogen suppliers will jointly promote FCVs and hydrogen supply infrastructure throughout Japan. They expect the government to support them through government-private sector partnerships in creating FCV deployment strategies (*) including incentives and public acceptance measures.
*: As a specific initiative for the time being, the 13 private companies will support the initial demand for mass-produced FCVs in the four cities, and will discuss FCV deployment strategies with various stakeholders including local governments, such as the optimal distribution of hydrogen supply infrastructure required for supporting the demand for FCVs.

A subcommittee will be set up in each of the four cities to support these strategies including optimal deployment of hydrogen stations, and prepare specific plans for building the infrastructure. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry commented: "Recognizing that this joint statement conforms to goals set forth in the Strategic Energy Plan of Japan, METI will take necessary steps to facilitate the launch in 2015 and subsequent nationwide dissemination.

Demonstration Begins at Kitakyushu Hydrogen Town

On January 15, 2011, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry began distributing hydrogen to multiple users in Kitakyushu City in a demonstration "Hydrogen Town Project." This project is operated by the Research Association of Hydrogen Supply/Utilization Technology (HySUT), is a part of the Demonstration Program for Establishing a Hydrogen-Based Social System.
In this project, hydrogen, produced at Nippon Steel Corporation's Yahata Steel Works, is distributed by pipeline to collective housing facilities, detached houses, commercial facilities and public facilities in the neighborhood, for use by pure hydrogen-fed fuel cell systems. 

The purposes of the project include:

-Demonstration of technology for distributing hydrogen by pipeline (hydrogen is given an odor)
-Demonstration of pure hydrogen-fed fuel cell systems
-Demonstration of the combination of fuel cell systems with photovoltaic and power storage systems (verification of power distribution systems and demonstration of operability as emergency generators)
-Demonstration of hydrogen filling to cartridges for fuel cell forklifts and fuel cell assisted bicycles, etc., using a low-pressure hydrogen recharge system at a DIY store in the area
This is the world's first example of a community-oriented hydrogen distribution demonstration project, covering not only residential houses but also commercial and public facilities.

SOURCE  
http://www.gas.or.jp



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