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Monday, July 01, 2013

HYDROGEN ENERGY PRODUCTION - HISTORY AND FUTURE

DEAR FELLOWS CHAIRESTHAI (=BE HAPPY),
CONTINUING THE SCIENTIFIC  RESEARCH AND POLITICAL WORK FOR  EUROPEAN CITIZENS AND PARTNERS,EPAPHOS CONSULTANCY  PARTICIPATED TO THE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY WEEK ,BEING ORGANIZED BY THE EU COMMISSION FROM  24-28 /06/13.
THE LAST  PUBLIC EVENT WAS THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE EUROPEAN HYDROGEN ASSOCIATION AT THE PAID BY THE CITIZENS HOUSE OF THE EUROPEAN CITIES ,MUNICIPALITIES AND REGIONS.

https://twitter.com/epaphosinfo/status/350549012245528576

DURING THE EVENT IT WAS TRIED TO BE UNDERSTOOD WHY THIS IMPORTANT SECTOR IS STUCK,AT LEAST IN EUROPEAN LANDS.
THE SHARE  OF HYDROGEN ENERGY CONTRIBUTION  TO THE WHOLE RENEWABLE ENERGY  IS LESS THAN 1%,ACCORDING TO HON.CITIZEN AND PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD MR.WILLIAMSON  IAN.
WE THANK THE HOSPITALITY OF THIS EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION ,WITH SPECIAL THANKS FOR THE EU COMMISSION'S VERY INTERESTING ANSWERS TO OUR QUESTIONS,ESPECIALLY TO THE INDIRECTLY CONNECTED WAVE ENERGY SECTOR,TO WHICH SOME YEARS AGO WE HAD PROPOSED STRATEGICAL DIRECTIONS,WITHOUT BEING INFORMED FOR THE RESULTS.
TAKING ADVANTAGE OF THIS DISCUSSION IT IS PRESENTED IN A SUMMARIZED WAY HISTORY AND SOME  ABILITIES FOR THE SECTOR,PROMISING THAT  IN THE FUTURE IT WILL BE  POSTED MORE ADVANTAGES ,BUT ALSO TAKING CARE FOR THE MINUS.
THANKS ALL FOR YOUR ATTENTION AND SUPPORT
A.CH.




HISTORY

  Hydrogen has received increased attention as an environmentally friendly option to help meet today’s energy needs. The road leading to an
understanding of hydrogen’s energy potential presents a fascinating tour through scientific discovery and industrial ingenuity.

1766 - Hydrogen was first identified as a distinct element by British scientist Henry Cavendish after he separated hydrogen gas by reacting  zinc metal with hydrochloric acid. In a demonstration to the Royal  Society of London, Cavendish applied a spark to hydrogen gas yielding
water. This discovery led to his later finding that water (H2O) is made
of hydrogen and oxygen.
1783 – Jacques Alexander Cesar Charles,a French physicist, launched the first  hydrogen balloon flight. Known as "Charliere," the unmanned balloon flew  to an altitude of three kilometers. Only
three months later, Charles himself flew  the first manned hydrogen balloon.
1788 – Building on the discoveries of  Cavendish, French chemist Antoine Lavoisier gave ydrogen its name,which was derived from the Greek words - “hydro” and “genes,”meaning “water” and “born of.”
1800 –English scientists William Nicholson and Sir Anthony Carlisle  discovered that applying electric current to water produced hydrogen  and oxygen gases. This process was later termed “electrolysis.”
1839 – The fuel cell effect, combining hydrogen and oxygen gases to  produce water and an electric current, was discovered by Swiss chemist  Christian Friedrich Schoenbein.
1845 – English scientist and judge Sir William Grove demonstrated  Schoenbein’s discovery on a practical scale by creating a “gas battery.”
For his achievement he earned the title “Father of the Fuel Cell.”
1920s – German engineer Rudolf Erren converted the internal  combustion engines of trucks, buses and submarines to use  hydrogen or hydrogen mixtures. British scientist and Marxist writer
J.B.S. Haldane introduced the concept of renewable hydrogen in  his paper, Science and the Future, by proposing that ”there will be  great power stations where during windy weather the surplus  power will be used for the electrolytic decomposition of water  into oxygen and hydrogen.”
1937 – After ten successful trans-Atlantic flights from Germany to the  United States, the Hindenburg, a dirigible inflated with hydrogen gas,erupted into flames while landing in Lakewood, New Jersey. See 1997.

1958 – The United States formed the National Aeronautics and Space  Administration (NASA). NASA’s space program currently uses the most liquid hydrogen worldwide, primarily for rocket propulsion and as a  fuel for fuel cells.
1959 – Francis T. Bacon of Cambridge University in England built the  first practical hydrogen-air fuel cell. The 5-kilowatt (kW) system  powered a welding machine. He named his fuel cell design the “Bacon  Cell.” Later that year, Harry Karl Ihrig, an engineer for the Allis - Chalmers
Manufacturing Company, demonstrated the first fuel cell vehicle: a 20–horsepower tractor. Hydrogen fuel cells, based upon Bacon’s design, have been used to generate on-board electricity, heat and water for  astronauts aboard the famous Apollo spacecraft and all subsequent  space shuttle missions.
1970 – Electrochemist John O’M. Bockris coined the term “hydrogen  economy.” He later published Energy: The Solar-Hydrogen Alternative,describing his envisioned hydrogen economy where cities in the United  States could be supplied with solar energy.
1972 – A 1972 Gremlin, modified by The University of California at Los  Angeles, entered the 1972 Urban Vehicle Design Competition and  won first prize for the lowest tailpipe emissions. Students converted  the Gremlin’s internal combustion engine to run on hydrogen supplied
from an onboard tank.
1973 –The OPEC oil embargo and the resulting supply shock suggested  that the era of cheap petroleum had ended and that the world needed  alternative fuels. The development of hydrogen fuel cells for  conventional commercial applications began.
1974 – Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu of the University of Miami, FL,organized The Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy Conference (THEME),the first international conference held to discuss hydrogen energy.
Following the conference, the scientists and engineers who attended  the THEME conference formed the International Association for  Hydrogen Energy (IAHE).

1977 – International Energy Agency (IEA) was established in response  to global oil market disruptions. IEA activities included the research  and development of hydrogen energy technologies. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) was also created.
1978 – National Science Foundation transferred the Federal Hydrogen  R&D Program to the U.S. DOE.
1988 – The Soviet Union Tupolev Design Bureau successfully converted  a 164-passenger TU-154 commercial jet to operate one of the jet’s  three engines on liquid hydrogen. The maiden flight lasted 21 minutes.
1989 – The National Hydrogen Association (NHA) formed in the United  States with ten members. Today, the NHA has nearly 100 members,including representatives from the automobile and aerospace  industries, federal, state and local governments, universities,
researchers, utilities and energy providers. The International  Organization for Standardization’s Technical Committee for Hydrogen  Technologies was also created.
1990 – The world’s first solar powered hydrogen production plant at  Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern, a research and testing facility in southern  Germany, became operational. The U.S. Congress passed the Spark M.Matsunaga Hydrogen, Research, Development and Demonstration Act  (PL 101-566), which prescribed the formulation of a 5-year  management and implementation plan for hydrogen research and  development in the United States. The Hydrogen Technical Advisory
Panel (HTAP) was mandated by the Matsunaga Act to ensure  consultation on and coordination of hydrogen research.
1991 – Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. begins  development of three 30-foot Fuel Cell Test Bed Buses (TBB) as part of  their Generation I Bus Program. In 2001, Georgetown finished their  second Generation II bus, which uses hydrogen from methanol to  power a 100kW fuel cell “engine.”
1992 – The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a  cooperative R&D program, was established by the Clinton  Administration as a joint effort between the government and
automobile manufactures for the research and development of new  vehicles technologies and alternative fuels, including hydrogen.
1994 – Daimler Benz demonstrated the NECAR I (New Electric CAR),its first hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, at a press conference in Ulm,Germany.
1995 – The Chicago Transit Authority unveiled the first of their  three hydrogen fuel cell buses. The small pilot fleet began operation  the following year.
1997 – Retired NASA engineer Addison Bain challenged the belief  that hydrogen caused the Hindenburg accident. The hydrogen, Bain demonstrated, did not cause the catastrophic fire but rather it was the  combination of static electricity and highly flammable material on the  skin of the airship. For more information, view the Hydrogen Safety  fact sheet.

1998 – Iceland unveiled a plan  to create the first hydrogen  economy by 2030.
1999 – Europe’s first hydrogen  fueling stations were opened  in the German cities of
Hamburg and Munich. The  Royal Dutch/Shell Company  committed to a hydrogen  future by forming a hydrogen  division. Also, a consortium of  Icelandic institutions, headed by the financial group New Business  Venture Fund, partnered with Royal Dutch/Shell Group,
DaimlerChrysler (a merger of Daimler Benz and Chrysler) Norsk  Hydro to form the Icelandic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Company,Ltd. to further the hydrogen economy in Iceland.
2001 – Ballard Power Systems launched the world’s first volumeproduced proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system  designed for integration into a wide variety of industrial and
consumer end-product applications.
2002 – Executives from DaimlerChrysler Corporation, Ford Motor   Company and General Motors Corporation, along with Secretary  of Energy Spencer Abraham, announced a new cooperative  automotive research (CAR) partnership between the U.S.
Department of Energy and the U.S. Council for Automotive  Research (USCAR). The program, FreedomCAR, focuses on  developing enabling technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells,
for petroleum-free cars and light trucks.
2003 – President George W. Bush announced in his 2003 State  of the Union Address a $1.2 billion hydrogen fuel initiative to  develop the technology for commercially viable hydrogenpowered fuel cells, such that “the first car driven by a child born  today could be powered by hydrogen and pollution free.” U.S.  Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham launched the International
Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy (IPHE) to foster global  cooperation in the development of hydrogen technology.
2004 – U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced over
$350-million devoted to hydrogen research and vehicle demonstration projects, nearly one-third of President Bush's  commitment. The funding encompasses over 30 lead  organizations and more than 100 partners selected through a  competitive review process.

“I believe that water will one day be  employed as fuel, that hydrogen and  oxygen which constitute it, used singly or  together, will furnish an inexhaustible  source of heat and light, of an intensity of
which coal is not capable.”

~ Jules Verne, The Mysterious Island (1874)

SOURCE  http://www.schydrogen.org




HERE IS EU COMMISSION'S VISION

A)     ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/fp7/energy/docs/hyways-roadmap_en.pdf

B)    Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells







JAPAN'S POLICIES CONCERNING A HYDROGEN SOCIETY


















Rapid Introduction of Fuel Cell   Vehicles toward Practical Use

Following the introduction of fuel cell buses on regular services on the expressway between central Tokyo and Haneda Airport from December 2010, four city gas utilities and nine companies in the automobile manufacturing and energy sectors issued a "Joint Statement on the Release of Fuel Cell Vehicles to the Domestic Market and the Development of Hydrogen Infrastructure" in January 2011.
Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) (1) are fueled by hydrogen, (2) are driven by a motor that runs on electricity produced by chemical reactions between hydrogen and oxygen, and (3) travel without emitting CO2. Of the 1,280 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions from Japan in fiscal 2008, the transport sector accounted for 16% (about 200 million tons). There are high expectations for FCVs and other types of next-generation vehicle to help create a low carbon society.
The Strategic Energy Plan of Japan (which defines national energy policies up to 2030), which was revised in June 2010, states the importance of promoting next-generation vehicles and includes FCVs as a next-generation vehicle to be promoted by the government because of their contribution to global warming prevention, energy security and the competitiveness of Japanese industry.
This newsletter contains two articles on FCV projects and describes a related hydrogen town demonstration project in Kitakyushu City. 


Start of FCV Transport Services between Central Tokyo and Haneda/Narita Airports

A Hydrogen Highway Project for connecting central Tokyo with Haneda and Narita Airports via FCV transport services, started on December 16, 2010. There is a single regular FCV limousine bus service each day in both directions between Haneda Airport and Shinjuku Station West Exit, and also between Haneda Airport and Tokyo City Air Terminal. In addition, hired FCV limousine services connect Narita Airport, Haneda Airport and central Tokyo.
This project is operated by the Research Association of Hydrogen Supply/Utilization Technology (HySUT)*, and is a part of the Demonstration Program for Establishing a Hydrogen-Based Social System, sponsored by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry.
Mainly for the limousine bus between Haneda Airport and central Tokyo, Tokyo Gas has built the Haneda Hydrogen Station near Haneda Airport, next to a natural gas station for NGVs. At this hydrogen station, hydrogen is reformed from natural gas supplied by city gas pipeline. It is also planned to separate, recover and liquefy the CO2 produced in this process, and to supply it to industry.
At another hydrogen station which serves hired FCV limousines between Narita Airport and the city center, hydrogen is supplied by JX Nippon Oil and Energy Corporation and Idemitsu Kosan. High pressure hydrogen gas generated in refineries is filled in hydrogen cylinders and transported by trucks. 
* Member companies/organizations:
Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., Osaka Gas Co., Ltd., Toho Gas Co., Ltd., Saibu Gas Co., Ltd., JX Nippon Oil and Energy Corporation, Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., Iwatani Corporation, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Cosmo Oil Co., Ltd., Showa Shell Sekiyu K.K., Taiyo Nippon Sanso Corporation, Air Liquide Japan Ltd., Mitsubishi Kakoki Kaisha, Ltd., Toyota Motor Corporation, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd., Honda R&D Co., Ltd., and Engineering Advancement Association of Japan


Joint Announcement of the Release of Fuel Cell Vehicles to the Domestic Market and the Development of Hydrogen Infrastructure

On January 13, 2011, 13 companies including four major city gas utilities, automobile manufacturers (such as Toyota Motor Corporation) and energy sector companies, jointly announced the release of FCVs, as a type of next-generation vehicle, to the domestic market in 2015 and the development of hydrogen supply infrastructure. The contents of the state are as follows: 
1.Automobile manufacturers are significantly reducing the cost of fuel cell systems through technological development. They aim to introduce mass-produced FCV models to the domestic market by 2015, mainly in the four largest cities of Japan (Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka and Fukuoka) and to start selling them to consumers. After initial introduction, further marketing effort will then be made for popularizing FCVs as way of coping with energy and environmental problems.
2.To kick-start the market for mass-produced FCV models, hydrogen suppliers (city gas utilities, oil companies, etc.) will prepare the initial hydrogen supply infrastructure at about 100 locations by 2015, which will then be expanded in line with forecasted sales of FCVs.
3.To greatly reduce CO2 emissions from the transport sector, automobile manufacturers and hydrogen suppliers will jointly promote FCVs and hydrogen supply infrastructure throughout Japan. They expect the government to support them through government-private sector partnerships in creating FCV deployment strategies (*) including incentives and public acceptance measures.
*: As a specific initiative for the time being, the 13 private companies will support the initial demand for mass-produced FCVs in the four cities, and will discuss FCV deployment strategies with various stakeholders including local governments, such as the optimal distribution of hydrogen supply infrastructure required for supporting the demand for FCVs.

A subcommittee will be set up in each of the four cities to support these strategies including optimal deployment of hydrogen stations, and prepare specific plans for building the infrastructure. The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry commented: "Recognizing that this joint statement conforms to goals set forth in the Strategic Energy Plan of Japan, METI will take necessary steps to facilitate the launch in 2015 and subsequent nationwide dissemination.

Demonstration Begins at Kitakyushu Hydrogen Town

On January 15, 2011, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry began distributing hydrogen to multiple users in Kitakyushu City in a demonstration "Hydrogen Town Project." This project is operated by the Research Association of Hydrogen Supply/Utilization Technology (HySUT), is a part of the Demonstration Program for Establishing a Hydrogen-Based Social System.
In this project, hydrogen, produced at Nippon Steel Corporation's Yahata Steel Works, is distributed by pipeline to collective housing facilities, detached houses, commercial facilities and public facilities in the neighborhood, for use by pure hydrogen-fed fuel cell systems. 

The purposes of the project include:

-Demonstration of technology for distributing hydrogen by pipeline (hydrogen is given an odor)
-Demonstration of pure hydrogen-fed fuel cell systems
-Demonstration of the combination of fuel cell systems with photovoltaic and power storage systems (verification of power distribution systems and demonstration of operability as emergency generators)
-Demonstration of hydrogen filling to cartridges for fuel cell forklifts and fuel cell assisted bicycles, etc., using a low-pressure hydrogen recharge system at a DIY store in the area
This is the world's first example of a community-oriented hydrogen distribution demonstration project, covering not only residential houses but also commercial and public facilities.

SOURCE  
http://www.gas.or.jp



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