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Tuesday, June 28, 2011

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE NEW INTERNET IPv6

(CLICKING ON THE TITLE WE SHALL BE DIRECTED TO THE ARTICLE  " What Security Issues Does IPv6 Pose? "  )

DEAR FELLOWS,HELLO,

LAST WEEK OUR EPAPHOS TEAMWORK HAD THE HONOUR IN FOLLOWING TWO IMPORTANT  SUMMITS HERE AT BRUSSELS :
A) THE INFO DAY FP7 ENVIRONMENTAL CALL ,WHERE WERE PRESENTED SOME VERY INVENTIVE CHALLENGES.
B)THE TWO DAY DIGITAL AGENDA ASSEMBLY ,WHICH WAS VERY FRUITFUL WITH A LOTS OF WORKSHOPS AND NEW IDEAS TO BE DEPLOYED.
IT IS THOUGHT THAT WE SHOULD PRESENT  THE IMPORTANCE OF IPV6,SINCE ACCORDING TO SERIOUS  SCIENTIFIC ESTIMATIONS ,THE IP4 ADDRESSES ARE GOING TO END UP TO THE END OF THIS YEAR FOR EUROPE AND UP TO THE FIRST QUARTER OF 2012,ON A GLOBAL BASIS.THIS IS VERY CRUCIAL APART FOR THE PUBLIC SECTOR,FOR THE PRIVATE TOO.

THANK YOU
AGGELOS

What is IPv6?


The Internet is about to change in a major way. Though this change will be imperceptible to most users, businesses everywhere must begin equipping their networks now for a successful transition to IPv6.

Network communication, just like a face-to-face conversation, requires a common language for the successful transfer of information, says Wynand Moller, D-Link Country Manager.

The common language of the Internet is known as the Internet Protocol (IP). When a networked device such as a computer or smartphone connects to the Internet through an Internet service provider (ISP), a unique IP address is assigned to the device. This IP address allows the device to be uniquely identified and subsequently communicated over the Internet.

Internet Protocol version six, or IPv6, is an Internet layer protocol developed in the 1990s (and described in RFC2460) as an alternative to IPv4. Rather than using a 32-bit system, IPv6 is based on 128-bit addresses, meaning that there are 2128 individual addresses available, which is approximately 3.4×1038, and exactly:

340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456

IPv6 provides enough addresses to allow the Internet to continue to expand and the industry to innovate. It is not, however, directly compatible with IPv4, meaning that a device connected via IPv4 cannot communicate directly with a device connected using IPv6.
Deploying IPv6 on a global scale is vital to the Internet industry, but it requires pro-active steps on the part of industry players: technology must be upgraded, staff trained, business plans developed. Uptake to date has been relatively slow, but this is now changing, and businesses need to be aware of the need to adopt IPv6. To ignore IPv6 is to risk your medium to long term business viability.

IPv6 readiness: a primer for government agencies

Consider the possibilities that new applications present for the public sector. Mobile devices could help emergency personnel automatically triage and track the status of large numbers of disaster victims. Wireless sensors could help transportation agencies monitor the condition of bridges, highways and other critical infrastructure. And empowered by machine-to-machine technologies, physicians could remotely monitor the condition of elderly citizens, allowing them to safely remain in their own homes longer.
The Need for IPv6: IP addresses are the numeric identifiers that are assigned to every device connected to the Internet. When IPv4, the current Internet protocol technology, was introduced in 1981, no one imagined the vast number of addresses that would be consumed as various devices were created. The need for IP addresses will only continue to grow as we mobilize and connect devices.


SOURCE http://www.ipv6actnow.org/


What is Internet Protocol?
Internet Protocol is a set of technical  rules that defines how computers
communicate over a network. There are  currently two versions: IP version 4 (IPv4)
and IP version 6 (IPv6).

What is IPv4?
IPv4 was the first version of Internet  Protocol to be widely used, and accounts
for most of today’s Internet traffic. There are just over 4 billion IPv4 addresses.
While that is a lot of IP addresses, it is  not enough to last forever.

What is IPv6?
IPv6 is a newer numbering system that  provides a much larger address pool
than IPv4, amongst other features. It was deployed in 1999 and should meet
the world’s IP addressing needs well into the future.

What are the major differences?

The major difference between IPv4 and IPv6 is the number of IP addresses.
There are 4,294,967,296 IPv4 addresses. In contrast, there are
340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 IPv6 addresses.

The technical functioning of the Internet remains the same with both versions
and it is likely that both versions will continue to operate simultaneously on
networks well into the future. To date,most networks that use IPv6 support
both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses in their networks.



SOURCE  ARIN  AMERICAN REGISTRY FOR INTERNET NUMBERS


Training4IPv6

IPv6 is a cornerstone of the Future Internet. Europe has been playing a key role up to now on the worldwide scene, but is more and more challenged by countries such as the USA, China, Korea and Japan. To ensure both business continuity of the European industry and to get benefits from IPv6 added technologies, the 2008 European Commission (EC) Communication, in its action plan, requests that by 2010, 25% of the users should be able to connect to IPv6.
Based on the deployment level as perceived today, this is a real ambitious target which requires training a number of resources are they public or private.
inno has been assigned by the European Commission to identify the main actors in all sectors and the processes related to the training and dissemination of the new protocol IPv6 and provide mechanisms, incentives and best practices that can help in deploying this new technology efficiently and timely.
The database of the "Training providers" section of this website gathers organisations providing IPv6 training. If you are involved in IPv6 training, please feel free to register your training organisation, otherwise, you can browse this platform.

SOURCE   http://www.training4ipv6.eu/

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Monday, June 20, 2011

THE DECLINE OF THE GLOBALISTS

(CLICKING ON THE TITLE WE ARE REDIRECTED TO AN ARTICLE  FROM FORBES  WRITTEN  ON  01.27.09   Corruption And The Global Financial Crisis )

DEAR READERS AND FOLLOWERS,HELLO,
THE MESSAGES FROM THE GLOBALISTS DECISIONS,THROUGH THE NOMENCLATURE OF PARTIES POLITICIANS OR OTHER CLUBS,ORGANIZATIONS AND POLICY ADVISERS BODIES,ARE INDICATING,THAT OUR PREDICTIONS (SOME OF THEM BEING PRESENTED HERE) FOR THE LAST 15 YEARS ARE RIGHT .
THE PROBLEM ISN'T OF COURSE EUROZONE AND ESPECIALLY GREECE (APART FROM ARROGANCE).
THE LETS SAY EUROZONE PROBLEM IS USED BY NEW YORK'S POLICIES IN ORDER TO ATTRACT ATTENTION TO THE GLOBAL COMMUNITY,SO THAT PEOPLE TO BELIEVE THAT EURO'S STABILITY,IS THE MAIN CONCERN ,WHEN AT THE SAME TIME THE GLOBALISTS ARE TRYING TO COVER AND FIND SOLUTIONS TO THEIR UNRESOLVED PROBLEMS.

EUROPEAN CITIZENS,
WE REPEAT ONCE  MORE ,A STRONG EURO ISN'T FOR OUR ECONOMIES BENEFIT,BUT FOR THE BENEFIT OF OTHERS ,AS IT IS DESCRIBED TO OUR PREVIOUS PRESENTATIONS HERE.
THE GREEK PROBLEM ,APART FROM IRELAND'S,PORTUGAL'S AND THE OTHERS WHICH ARE GOING TO FOLLOW,ACTUALLY IS AN ADVANTAGE FOR US AND OUR CONTINENTAL AND MEDITERRANEAN PARTNERS AND POLICIES.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

A.CH.


Geithner warns on light-touch oversight

Tuesday, June 7, 2011
Tim Geithner, US Treasury secretary, warned overseas markets against undercutting American financial regulations financial regulations, urging them to avoid following the “tragic” example that the UK set in light-touch oversight.

In outspoken remarks that outlined the US position on a range of international regulatory issues, Mr Geithner called for a global deal on derivatives and endorsed forcing the largest banks to hold more equity capital. But such a surcharge need not be “excessive”.

Mr Geithner said it was essential for Asia to fall into line in imposing tough restrictions on derivatives trading. Officials said there was concern that Singapore and Hong Kong could try to lure business with softer rules.

Alluding to the painful fallout from the financial crisis, Mr Geithner held up the UK’s past policies as a negative example.

“The United Kingdom’s experiment in a strategy of light-touch regulation to attract business to London away from New York and Frankfurt ended tragically,” he said. “That should be a cautionary note for other countries deciding whether to try to take advantage of the rise in standards in the United States.”

“As we act to contain risk in the US, we want to minimise the chances that it simply moves to other markets around the world,” Mr Geithner says. He says the US is going to “bring the world with us”.

Mr Geithner called for global agreement on how much collateral, or “margin”, to impose on uncleared derivative transactions. The Group of 20 nations has agreed that standardised over-the-counter derivatives should use clearing houses by the end of 2012 in an effort to improve transparency and safety of financial instruments blamed for exacerbating the financial crisis.

But there remain differences on what to do with uncleared transactions, with the US proposing to force counterparties to stump up more cash or safe securities against trade – a move fiercely opposed by banks and some large non-financial derivatives users.

Mr Geithner’s call for a common standard for margin – in the same way, he said, as the Basel committee agrees international bank capital rules – comes after warnings from Wall Street banks that business is set to migrate to Asia.

“Risk in derivatives will become concentrated in those jurisdictions with the least oversight. This is a recipe for another crisis,” Mr Geithner said. On bank capital rules, he said “a simple common equity surcharge should be applied internationally”.

Mr Geithner’s warning about a race to the bottom came as the International Monetary Fund backed the UK in a European fight over bank capital rules. The IMF said European Union members should be allowed to “gold-plate” capital requirements with higher minimums when national circumstances warranted.

There remain other transatlantic differences on financial reform, highlighted by letter sent last month to Mr Geithner from Michel Barnier, the European commissioner responsible for financial markets, where he argued that Brussels was ahead of the US in several areas – including capital requirements for banks and limits on bonuses for financial executives. “The level playing field must be a reality, not an empty slogan,” he wrote.

Yet Europe, too, is also most concerned by developments in other regions. Concerns that the imposition of tougher regulatory standards within the 27-country European Union bloc will simply push business into markets where standards are less onerous have been raised repeatedly in Europe.

 The argument was made forcefully during the battle over new EU hedge fund rules, with claims that funds would move to Switzerland or Singapore – and resurfaced in the effort to cap bank bonuses.

The response of EU policymakers has been to publicly downplay the likely loss of business – but to also urge global compliance tougher regulatory guidelines. Mr Barnier has warned financial groups not to make a “bad calculation” for short-term profits.


By Tom Braithwaite in Washington and Nikki Tait in Brussels

Copyright The Financial Times Limited 2011


Global Growth Hits Soft Patch, Expected to Rebound


IMF sees 2011 global growth broadly unchanged at 4.3 percent, 4.5 percent next year
 But weakness in U.S. and Japan, problems in euro area pose greater risks
 Strong policy adjustments needed to steer away from unbalanced growth

The global economy, hit by slowdowns in Japan and the United States, is expected to re-accelerate in the second half of the year, but growth remains unbalanced and concerted policy action by major economies is needed to avoid lurking dangers, the IMF says in its latest forecast.

Although the IMF kept its forecast for global growth broadly unchanged at 4.3 percent for this year, rising to 4.5 percent in 2012, the 187-member institution said the mild slowdown in the second quarter of 2011 “is not reassuring.”

While growth in most emerging and developing economies continues to be strong, slowdowns caused by the devastating earthquake and tsunami in Japan, weaker than expected activity in the United States, and shocks to oil supply weighed on the global expansion in the second quarter of the year, the IMF said in an update to its World Economic Outlook (WEO), released in São Paulo, Brazil.

The IMF also released updates to the Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR), which assesses trends in capital markets and the global financial system, and the Fiscal Monitor, which tracks changes in public finance and debt.

“A bump in the road”

Growth in the euro area, powered by more upbeat investment in Germany and France, has been better than expected, but concerns about the depth of fiscal challenges in some European countries have triggered renewed financial volatility.

Speaking about the U.S. slowdown, Olivier Blanchard, the Fund’s Economic Counsellor, said he saw it more as “a bump in the road rather than something more worrisome,” although the U.S. recovery remained weak.

The IMF identified the following regional trends (see table):

• Asia: Growth in emerging Asia will decelerate only slightly from the very high levels of last year. Disruptions to regional production networks due to supply constraints from Japan appear contained, although some sectors, especially automobiles and electronics, could experience strains through the summer.

• Latin America will be bolstered by commodity exports and domestic demand, but the pace of growth will ease in some economies where policies have been tightening more aggressively to reduce risks of overheating.

• Europe: Growth in Europe’s emerging economies is now projected to be higher than previously expected in 2011, followed by a softening in 2012, driven in part by a sharp domestic demand cycle in Turkey.

• Sub-Saharan Africa: Activity is projected to continue strengthening, with domestic demand remaining robust, and commodity exporters benefiting from elevated prices.

• Middle East and North Africa: economic prospects remain clouded by political and social unrest, although the outlook has improved for some oil and mineral exporters.



Risks from overheating

In a number of emerging and developing economies that are already operating at or above precrisis levels of output, the IMF said the priority was to expeditiously tighten macroeconomic policies, and use exchange rate flexibility and macroprudential tools—possibly including capital controls—to help contain risks of boom-bust cycles.

For economies with excessive current account surpluses, particularly in Asia, demand rebalancing—through exchange rate appreciation and structural reforms—remains a top priority for securing balanced growth and employment gains in the medium term.

Financial sector risks rising

In its GFSR Update, the IMF said financial risks have increased since April for three reasons: first, mounting concern about the strength of the global economic recovery; second, worries about political support for adjustment in Europe’s periphery as well as political risks in addressing fiscal adjustment in some advanced economies; and third, spurred by a sustained period of low interest rates in advanced economies, a growing investor search for yield that risks building up future financial imbalances, especially in emerging market countries.

 “Policymakers continue to face the possibility of potentially large future shocks to the financial system, with the recent increase in financial risks adding to existing concerns,” said José Viñals, the IMF’s Financial Counsellor and head of the Monetary and Capital Markets Department.

The IMF said that given recent financial market concerns, policymakers need to intensify and accelerate their efforts to tackle the longstanding financial challenges of budget deficits, banking system vulnerabilities and financial sector reform.

There has been some work done to repair bank balance sheets, but progress has been slow. Some banks are still weighed down by lower quality assets, and important funding challenges remain. The results from the new round of European stress tests will mark an important watershed and banks will need to pick up the pace to rebuild their capital.

Tackling fiscal challenges

The United States and Japan are slow to come up with specific plans to bring down their high debt levels, while debt problems in some European countries mean financial markets are charging high rates to lend them money. The IMF said that given recent financial markets’ concerns, policymakers need to speed up efforts to tackle the longstanding financial challenges of government risk, banking system vulnerabilities, and the unintended consequences of low interest rates.

In its latest Fiscal Monitor, the IMF said the United States deficit will be lower in 2011 than forecast in April. This is due to revenue increases, in part because of sizable capital gains in 2010, coupled with lower expenditures. As a result, the planned cutbacks for 2012 will not need to be as steep to meet the targets set by the government.

“What remains missing in the United States, however, is a political consensus on a comprehensive and balanced set of specific measures to underpin a credible medium-term adjustment plan with objectives endorsed by Congress,” said Carlo Cottarelli, head of the IMF’s Fiscal Affairs Department, which produced the report. “Without such a plan, yield on U.S. government paper would start reflecting a risk premium, which would not be good for the U.S. and the world economy.”

Reducing government debts and deficits is proceeding in many advanced economies—notably in most of Europe and in Canada—helped by bright spots of economic activity and growing government revenues.

The key fiscal priority for major advanced economies—especially the United States and Japan—is to implement credible and well-paced consolidation programs focused on bolstering medium-term debt sustainability. For the United States, it is critical to address the debt ceiling and launch a deficit reduction plan that includes entitlement reform and revenue-raising tax reform, the IMF said. In Japan, tax reform should be the centerpiece of a detailed medium-term deficit reduction package.

In emerging and low-income economies, fiscal deficits and debts are being reduced gradually. In several of these economies—including commodity producers benefiting from high export prices—the economic recovery has been faster, and the task is to avoid overheating, including by tightening fiscal policy faster than currently envisaged.

IMF Survey online  -   June 17, 2011

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