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Wednesday, April 20, 2011

ADVANCED ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

DEAR FELLOW READERS,HELLO,
OUR TEAMWORK WAS PARTICIPATING TO :

THE EU sustainable ENERGY WEEK
11-15 APRIL 2011

DURING THE VARIOUS  SESSIONS,INTERESTING PRESENTATIONS WERE SEEN,WHICH
ENLIGHTENED US ,ABOUT THE FUTURE ENERGY POLICIES ,WHICH SHOULD BE CREATED. 
BEING MORE PRECISE WE FOLLOWED

A)ENERGY EFFICIENCY IS NOT SUFFICIENT.WHAT ARE POSSIBLE SUFFICIENCY STRATEGIES?
ON 9/4/11 AT ULB (UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES)

B)HIGH LEVEL OPENING OF THE EU CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY POLICY
ON 12/4/11 AT EUROPEAN COMMISSION - CHARLEMAGNE

C) ENERGY DAYS PIVEX PLATFORM AND SMART ENERGY NETWORKS
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS ROMANIA
ON 13/4/11 AT RESIDENCE HOTEL PALACE

D)COMPARING MARINE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH,EUROPEAN OCEAN ENERGY ASSOCIATION
ON 14/4 AT CHARLEMAGNE

E)ICT FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY
ON 14/4/11 AT COMMITTEE OF THE REGIONS

GENERALLY SPEAKING A LOT OF IMPORTANT STAKEHOLDERS WERE GATHERED ,WHO DISCUSSED IN DEPTH THE ENERGY PROBLEM

THANK YOU ,
HAPPY EASTER TO OUR CHRISTIAN BROTHERS

AGGELOS CHARLAFTIS


 BELOW IT IS PRESENTED AN INTERESTING ESSAY AS :

 An informational guide to available  high-tech efficient energy systems

It is no mystery now that depleting fossil fuel reserves and greenhouse
gas emissions are problems that must be dealt with, especially in urban
areas. The first of many steps are being taken by setting goals for cleaner
and more efficient power generation, however, meeting these goals is beyond
the capability of current methods. The answer to reaching and surpassing
expectation may be to implement cutting edge and innovative technologies.
In this informational guide, some of the newest technologies will be
explained in a manner that can reach those who do not have a technical
background. The intention is to inform people of some potential technologies
that are currently available, whose information may not be accessible. We
hope that education will aid in the development and implementation of these
innovative solutions and lead us into a cleaner and greener future.

Focusing on London Borough of Merton, we will discuss several technologies
that could aid in solving some of the problems with CO2 emissions, high
fuel prices and waste disposal.
A)Combined Heat and Power
B) Hydrogen Fuel Cells
C) Pyrolysis
D) Anaerobic Digestion


Combined Heat  and Power



The combined heat and power (CHP)  concept is quite simply the generation of heat and
electricity from a single source; it represents the  most efficient way to generate heat and
electricity. During conventional power generation,excess heat is usually wasted. CHP systems utilize
the waste heat, achieving overall machine efficiencies of 80% and more. Energy costs can be
significantly reduced while being environmentally  friendly as GHG emissions are also reduced.
Furthermore, many manufacturers today engineer  machines to utilize a variety of fuel sources
including renewable bio-fuels.
In addition to reduction in energy use and  carbon emissions, the are a number of
commercial benefits including government funding  and avoidance of the Climate Change Levy.
 


 BASIC PRINCIPAL
















TYPES
 Steam Turbine
 Gas Turbine
 Combined Cycle Gas/Steam Turbine
 Reciprocating Engine

 
ENGINE GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS



DIVERSITY OF FUEL
Natural Gas - Biogas - Diesel  - Propane


CASE STUDY: WOKING
Since 1991, the London Borough of Woking has  installed over 60 independent reciprocating engine CHP machines across the borough. Each machine is connected together by a private wire network owned by the energy services company, Thamesway Energy Ltd, which is 100%
owned by the borough. The borough also includes renewable  sources such as photovoltaics into the network. By 2003 the  borough was 99.85% off of the national grid. As a result, from
1991 to 2002 Woking has reduced energy consumption by  43.8% (170,170,665 kWh) and cut carbon emissions by 71.5% (96,588 tones). Nitrous Oxides (NOx) and Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)  emissions have been  cut down by 68%  and 73.4%  respectively. Total  savings for the  Borough in 11 years  have amounted to  £4.9 million pounds.

For more information visit:
http://www.aircogen.co.uk/
http://www.clarke-energy.co.uk/
http://www.cogenco.co.uk/
http://www.energ.co.uk/chp.asp


Hydrogen Fuel Cells

Some of the most promising technology for the  future of power generation is fuel cells. Fuel cells
represent the cleanest production of heat and electricity  currently available. Operating through a non-combustion  based, non-mechanical process, fuel cells are able to  achieve very low GHG emission and excellent efficiency.
They are versatile and fuel flexible, tending to almost any  size application and deliver consistent reliable power,even from renewable fuels. There is currently large scale  research and development in many countries to overcome the difficulties of commercialization; however the technology is still largely immature and remains expensive compared to other mature technology.



 BASIC PRINCIPAL

Hydrogen fuel cells operate on a principal originally
demonstrated in 1839 by Welsh scientist Sir William Grove.
He discovered an electrochemical process involving
hydrogen and oxygen in a cell that produces electricity and
heat.





BASIC PROCESS


1. Hydrogen rich fuel flows into the anode, the negative terminal
2. Air flows into the  cathode, the positive  terminal
3. The electrochemical reaction is induced by  the catalyst and occurs across the electrolyte
4. DC electricity is  produced and is fed to  the work load (light bulb, motor, grid network)
5. Heat, water and CO2 (if pure hydrogen is not used) are exhausted

TYPES

There are many types of fuel cells, however four have
proven to be well suited for stationary power and cogeneration.
A) Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)
B) Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)
C)Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
D) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)
Each type of fuel cell offers different characteristics:






CASE STUDY: WOKIING PARK

In September, 2003 the London Borough of  Woking installed a UTC PC25 PAFC fuel cell with to
provide heat and electricity to the leisure center and pool  area. The fuel cell has  performed as expected
operating at 37%  electrical efficiency. The  overall efficiency has  been less than  expected, at 57%, as
not all heat output has  been utilized. The fuel cell has brought great results to the Borough in terms of fuel consumption and carbon emissions.
1) Carbon Emission savings of over 1,000 tonnes/yr (compared to fossil fuel combustion methods)
2) 1 million liters of surplus pure water  Each PC25 fuel cell is rated to generate 200kW
of electrical power and 270 kW thermal power. This is  enough power for approximately 57 three bedroom  households


For more information visit:
http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/
http://www.fuelcelltoday.com
http://www.utcfuelcells.com Fuel Cells


PyrolysisOne of many new alternatives to typical waste  disposal methods is pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a quickly
developing waste-to-energy technology that is cleaner and more efficient than methods such as incineration and landfilling. It is an advanced thermal treatment that uses extremely high temperatures in the absence of  oxygen to break down waste and other organic material  into more useful fuel products including syngas,pyrolysis oil, and char.
With the expected growths in waste generation  and reductions in landfill availability, pyrolysis is an
appealing economic and environmental solution for  urban areas and municipalities working to reduce the amount of waste being sent to landfills. Pyrolysis is  designed to not only help minimize waste, but to  generate fuel for local energy production in use with CHP  and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.





WASTE TREATMENT




BASIC PROCESS



BY- PRODUCTS

1) Synthetic Gas (Syngas) - Gas by-product made up  of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and  methane. Syngas can be used as a fuel to generate heat and/or electricity, or as a chemical
for industrial use.
2) Pyrolysis Oil (bio-fuel) - Liquid residue that can be  used as a fuel to generate heat and/or electricity, or a  chemical for industrial use, fertilization, etc.
3) Char - Solid residue containing carbon and ash.Char is typically disposed of but may be used as
an alternative fuel or recycled.





CASE STUDY: BURGAU, GERMANY

In 1983, WasteGen UK supplied a Materials Energy  and Recovery plant to Burgau, Germany. The plant is a unique combination of a pyrolysis plant and power generation plant and was designed to treat municipal solid waste (MSW). It was  built just outside the city on approximately 1 hectare of land,
and began full operation in  1984. The plant currently  processes around 34,000 tonnes of MSW a year from  120,000 residents.
Any solid by-products  produced by the plant are  disposed of in a nearby landfill.
Gas, however, is typically used  to generate energy. Syngas is burned in a gas boiler to create
steam which drives a 2.2 MW steam turbine for electricity  production. This is enough electricity to power over 4000  residential homes. Any excess steam is piped to a next door  greenhouse for heating.


Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a growing  technology in Europe and around the US for the treatment
of waste and biomass. It is most commonly referred to as  biological treatment or a waste-to-energy technology.
Unlike typical methods for waste disposal, AD uses naturally growing bacteria to break down biodegradable  organic waste in the absence of oxygen and convert it into a more useful by-products including biogas, liquid digestate, and fibre digestate.
Commercial manufacture and availability of AD  plants has only begun to increase in the past few decades,along with system designs for the treatment of municipal  solid waste. However, with the projected growths in waste  generation and reductions in landfill space availability,
anaerobic digestion is becoming a much more attractive  and economically feasible alternative for municipal solid waste disposal in urban areas.





WASTE TREATMENT




THE AD PROCESS

Step 1: Pre-Treatment: Materials not suitable for digestion are
removed from the incoming waste.
Step 2: Waste Digestion : Incoming waste is moved into a large,
enclosed tank, known as a digester, which is heated and rid of all oxygen. Bacteria grow inside the digester and break down complex waste matter into simpler materials.
Step 3: Gas Recovery:  30-60% of the incoming waste is converted to a
biogas by-product which is cleaned, collected, and  stored till it can be used.
Step 4: Residue Treatment: Bioliquid and biosolid by-products are collected
and treated to be used as soil conditioners or  composting material.

BY-PRODUCTS


I) Biogas A gas made up of 60% methane and 40% carbon
dioxide, that can be burned to generate heat and/or electricity.
II)Bioliquid (Liquid Residue) - Liquid by-product that can be used as fertilizer to improve soils.
III)Biosolid (Fibre Residue) - Solid byproduct  that can be used as a soil conditioner or compost.



*Based on various sources


CASE STUDY: VALORGA PLANT

In 1994, Organic Waste Systems (OWS) began
operation of the Valorga plant in Tilburg, Netherlands. The  plant is located next to a landfill on 1.6 hectares of land and currently takes in waste from approximately 380,000 people. It has the potential for an annual waste capacity of  52,000 tonnes of  VGF (vegetable, fruit, and garden
waste), but usually takes in around 42,000 tonnes of VGF per year.
Studies have shown that  the plant produces around 18,000 tonnes of compost yearly
and 82m3-106m3 of biogas per  tonne of waste. The biogas is  refined to a quality comparable to natural gas and burned  to generate around 18GWh of energy a year. 3.3GWh of this is used to heat the AD plant, while the remaining  14.7GWh is sold to gas distributors. Initial investment of
the plant cost £12 million, but the plant is now bringing in  an annual average revenue of £2.2 million.


 CHP References:
Greenpeace Briefing. (2006). Decentralising energy the Woking case study. Retrieved April 21, 2006 from  http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/MultimediaFiles/Live/FullReport/7468.pdf
Taking Stock: Managing our impact. (n.d). Case Study 2: Woking Borough Council Energy Services. Retrieved April 19, 2006 from  http://www.takingstock.org/Downloads/Case_Study_2-Woking.pdf
Cogenco Team (2006). CHP: An Overview. Retrieved April 21, 2006 from http://cogenco.co.uk/English/an_overview.html


Hydrogen Fuel Cell References:
MTU-Friedrichshafen. (2003). The high temperature fuel cell  combined power heat energy generation for the future. MTU  CFC Solutions. Retrieved February 05, 2006 from http://www.mtu-friedrichshafen.com/cfc/en/cfcs/cfcs.htm# Rocky Mountain Institute. (2005). Energy: Fuel Cells. Retrieved February 4, 2006 from http://www.rmi.org/sitepages/pid315.php
U.S. Department of Energy. (2005). Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructures  Tecnologies Program. Retrieved February 4, 2006 from http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/
United Technologies Company. (2006). Pure Cell 200 Power Solution. UTC Power: Our Solutions. Retrieved February 05, 2006  from http://www.utcpower.com/fs/com/bin/fs_com_Page/0,5433,03100,00.html

Pyrolysis References:
BTG Biomass Technology Group. (2005). Bio-oil Applications. Retrieved April 20, 2006 from
http://www.btgworld.com/2005/html/technologies/bio-oil-applications.html
Compact Power. (n.d.). Renewable Energy from Waste. Retrieved April 20, 2006 from http://www.compactpower.co.uk/index.php
European Environment Agency. (January 2002). Biodegradable Municipal Waste Management in Europe. Part 3: Technology and  Market Issues [Electronic Version]. Retrieved April 20, 2006 from http://www.environmental-center.com/articles/article1156/part3.pdf
Friends of the Earth. (October 2002). Briefing: Pyrolysis and Gasification [Electronic Version]. Retrieved February 5, 2006 from
http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/gasification_pyrolysis.pdf
Fortuna, F., Cornacchia, M., Mincarini, M., and Sharm, V. K.. (1997). Pilot Scale Experimental Pyrolysis Plant: Mechanical and
Operational Aspects. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 40-41, 403-417.
Gale, Steve. (2001). Modern Residuals Processing in Theory and Practice. Retrieved February 5, 2006 from
http://www.hatch.ca/Sustainable_Development/Articles/organics_processing_2001.pdf
Juniper Consultancy Services Ltd. (2003). Pyrolysis and Gasification Factsheet. Technology Reviews for the Waste, Environmental,
and Renewable Energy Sectors. Retrieved February 5, 2006 from
Smith, G. (October 2004). Pyrolysis Facility. Landfilling Our Resources is a Waste. Retrieved April 21, 2006 from
http://www.lacity.org/council/cd12/pdf/
Landfilling_Resources_MPA_Pyrolysis_Facility.pdf
WasteGen UK, Ltd. (n.d.). Generating Value from Waste: Pyrolysis Energy Recovery. Retrieved February 5, 2006 from
http://www.wastegen.com/template.htm

Anaerobic Digestion References:
Duerr, M., Gair, S., Cruden, A, McDonald, J. (2005). The Design of a Hydrogen Organic Fuel Source/Fuel Cell Plant. International
Hydrogen Energy Congress and Exhibition. Scotland, UK: University of Strathclyde.
Friends of the Earth. (November 2004). Briefing: Anaerobic Digestion [Electronic Version]. Retrieved February 11, 2006 from
http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/anaerobic_digestion.pdf
IEA Bioenergy. (July 2001). Biogas and More! System and Markets Overview of Anaerobic Digestion [Electronic Version].
Oxfordshire, UK: AEA Technology Environment.
Maunder, D.H., Brown, K.A., and Richards, K.M. (August 1995). Generating Electricity from Biomass and Waste.
Power Engineering Journal, 9(4), 188-196.
Ostrem, K. (May 2004). Greening Waste: Anaerobic Digestion for Treating the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes.
New York: Columbia University.
Verma, S. (May 2002). Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable Organics in Municipal Solid Wastes. New York: Columbia University.
Wannholt, L. (1999). Biological Treatment of Domestic Waste in Closed Plants in Europe – Plant Visit Reports.
RVF Report, 98:8. Malmo: RVF.
Waste. (May 2005). Fact Sheet: Anaerobic Digestion. Retrieved April 20, 2006 from http://www.waste.nl/page/248

SOURCE  http://www.wpi.edu

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