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Thursday, November 17, 2011

TO WHOM THE CITIZENS OWE AND MUST PAY?

(CLICKING THE TITLED LINK WE ARE BEING REDIRECTED TO AN ARTICLE TITLED THE AMERICAN NATIONAL DEBT - WHO DO AMERICAN OWE MONEY? )

EUROPEAN  CITIZENS AND PARTNERS,BONJOUR,
THE TODAY ARTICLE IT IS BEING FOCUSED ON AN ISSUE,WHICH THE GLOBALIZED OLIGARCHIC POLITICAL LEADERS OF ALMOST ALL THE TODAY (SO CALLED ) DEMOCRATIC PARTIES,PRETEND THAT IT CANNOT BE RESOLVED.
THE INABILITY FOR THESE POLITICAL NOMENCLATURE  ELITES TO DO SOMETHING ,IS FOR THE SAME REASON ABOUT WHY THE AUTHOR OF THE ARTICLE DOESN'T ENTER IN A DEEPER ANALYSIS,OR IT IS LEAVING  THIS TO OTHERS WHO CLAIM TO BE MORE TECHNOCRATS,

BECAUSE THEY ARE ALL ONE,RELATED AND TIED WITH SEVERAL WAYS,MAINLY BY THEIR  HEADQUARTERS AT N.Y.

AS WE ARE CONTINUING OFFERING OUR HUMBLE SERVICES TO THE EUROPEAN CITIZENS,BUT NOT ONLY,DESPITE THE  DIFFICULTIES ,WHICH ARE BEING ARIZEN BY THE SYSTEM AND ALWAYS  FACED  WITH THE HELP OF THEUS,DIEU,ALLAH,
THE  SAME QUESTION STILL REMAINS UNANSWERED , WHICH HAS BEEN POSED  FOR SEVERAL TIMES ,THE LAST  3 YEARS ,AT THE  ARTICLES WRITTEN HERE:

to whom ,natural persons the citizens and nations ,are exactly asked to pay their debts ?

IT IS IMPOSSIBLE,APART FROM OUTRAGEOUS ,THAT THE PERSONS WHO ARE  HIDING AT THE BACK OF LEGAL ENTITIES(OTHER NATURAL PERSONS,ORGANIZATIONS,COMPANIES,INSTITUTIONS,N.G.O ETC),NOT TO BE PRESENTED IN FRONT OF THE EYES OF THE PEOPLE,WITH  THE EXCUSE THAT THIS IS VERY DIFFICULT .
USUALLY SOMEBODY WHO OWES ANYTHING, KNOWS THE PERSON TO WHOM HE IS INDEBTED TO.

nothing it is impossible,with divine guidance,scientific research and technological applications ,especially when it is made,invented,created  by other human beings

CITIZENS OF GAIA,
TODAY WE HAVE THE KNOWLEDGE TO UNDERSTAND,BE EDUCATED AND RESEARCH WITH SUCCESS BY THE HELP OF TECHNOLOGY,BUT FOR TOMORROW ,IT LOOKS LIKE ONLY THE OLIGARCHICAL  DESPOTS ,WANT THESE ADVANTAGES FOR THEIR HIGHNESSES,AS THEIR IDEOLOGY DICTATES FROM THE VERY ANCIENT.

THANK YOU FOR THE ATTENTION AND SUPPORT
A.C.











Who Rules the Global Economy?

Most economists today don’t ask who rules the global economy, visualizing it as a decentralized competitive market that cannot be ruled. Yet new evidence suggests that global economic clout is highly concentrated among large interlocking transnational companies.

Three Swiss experts on complex network analysis have recently examined the architecture of international ownership, analyzing a large database of transnational corporations. They concluded that a large portion of control resides with a relatively small core of financial institutions, with about 147 tightly knit companies controlling about 40 percent of the total wealth in the network.
Their analysis draws heavily on network topology, a methodology that biologists use to good effect. An article in the British magazine New Scientist describes the research as evidence of a global financial oligarchy.
The technical details of economic network analysis are daunting, but the metaphors evoke a “Star Trek” episode: the network is described as a bow-tie shaped “super entity” of concentrated corporate ownership. One cannot help but worry about threats to the safety of the starship Enterprise.
 In recent years, research on industrial organization has focused more on corporate strategy than on social consequences. A recent article in the socialist journal Monthly Review, by John Bellamy Foster, Robert W. McChesney and R. Jamil Janna, criticizes both mainstream and left-wing economists for their lack of attention to monopoly power.
Focusing on the United States, they note that the percentage of manufacturing industries in which the largest four companies account for at least 50 percent of shipping value has increased to almost 40 percent, up from about 25 percent in 1987.
Even more striking is the increase in retail consolidation, largely reflecting a “Wal-Mart effect.” In 1992, the top four companies accounted for about 47 percent of all general merchandise sales. By 2007, their share had reached 73.2 percent.
Banking, however, takes the cake. Citing my fellow Economix blogger Simon Johnson, the Monthly Review article notes that in 1995, the six largest bank-holding companies (JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Citigroup, Wells Fargo, Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley) had assets equal to 17 percent of gross domestic product in the United States. By the third quarter of 2010, this had risen to 64 percent.
Some of these companies have undergone name changes in the process. A graphic published about a year ago in Mother Jones beautifully illustrates their merger history.
Large companies are often able to offer lower prices than small ones because they can take advantage of economies of scale. On the other hand, if their market power reaches a certain level, they can increase prices as much as they like. The consequences of economic concentration for consumers are complicated by more difficult-to-trace impacts on small businesses, American workers and small businesses.
The concentration of economic power at the top distills political power in ways described long ago by the sociologist William Domhoff in his classic “Who Rules America?” The related Web site provides updated information, exhorting today’s “change agents” to conduct social scientific research seriously.
Public concerns about economic concentration are stoked by hard times. Congress authorized a full-scale investigation of the topic back in days of the Great Depression.
Seems like the time has come for a fully international update.

Nancy Folbre is an economics professor at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

SOURCE  http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/

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